The cause of type 2 diabetes is a complex interplay of genetic, lifestyle factors, some of which have not been identified. Studies have identified at least 150 DNA variations that are associated with the risk of developing type 2 diabetes
These genes are involved in many aspects of type 2 diabetes, including the development and function of beta cells in the pancreas, the release and processing of insulin, and cells; sensitivity to the effects of insulin.
Most of these changes are common and are present both in people with diabetes and in those without. Each person has some variations that increase risk and others that reduce risk. It is the combination of these changes that helps determine a person’s likelihood of developing the disease.
Thus Type 2 diabetes is caused by both genetic and environmental factors and it can be difficult to separate genetic risk from environmental risk.